Tents and Membrane Structures

Tents and membrane structures are commonly used at festivals, golf outings, and similar events. Proper guidance in the fire code is necessary to ensure safety of the occupants and users of the area. Prior to applying code requirements the user should classify the scope of the structure in accordance with the proper definitions.

Definitions

 

Tent: A temporary structure, the covering of which is made of pliable material that achieves its support by mechanical means such as beams, columns, poles, or arches, or by rope or cables, or both. A tent is not supported by air or the contents it covers (NFPA 1 3.3.247 or IFC 2402)

Canopy: A structure, enclosure or shelter constructed of fabric or pliable materials supported by any manner, except by air or the contents it protects, and is open without sidewalls or drops on 75 percent or more of the perimeter (IFC 2402).

Membrane: A building or portion of a building incorporating an air-inflated, air-supported, tensioned-membrane structure; a membrane roof; or a membrane-covered rigid frame to protect habitable or usable space. An air inflated or supported (cable or frame) structure not otherwise defined as a tent or canopy (NFPA 1 3.3.240 or IFC 2402)

Code Basis for Tents, Membrane, and Canopy Structures

The code requirements vary based on the adopted code of the jurisdiction. The adopted fire code will give additional guidance. Submittals shall be in accordance with the adopted code and include sufficient information to address the issues that are regulated by the code.

Chapter 25, NFPA 1 2006 Edition

Chapter 24 of the International Fire Code, 2006 edition

NFPA 101, 2006 edition, discusses special provisions in multiple sections of the code. Specific guidance can be found in Chapter 11, which includes:

Section 11.9 Permanent Membrane Structures

Section 11.10 Temporary Membrane Structures

Section 11.11 Tents

Section 11.2 Canopies

NFPA 102, Standard for Grandstands, Folding, and Telescopic Seating, Tents, and Membrane Structures 2006 edition

Checklists and other resources for Inspectors

Central County, CA Fire Prevention Bureau Tent and Canopy Inspection Requirements

Dallas, TX Tent Application

Logan City Utah, Tent and Membrane Structure requirements

Phoenix, AZ, tent application including fee schedule

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